Giant panda snail

It isn’t black and white, doesn’t eat bamboo, and certainly isn’t cuddly – no one seems to know why this largest of Australian land snails is called ‘panda’. Think of an ordinary garden snail but blown up to a size where the shell is 10 cm across and you’ll get the general idea. The giant panda snail lives in Big Scrub Rainforest remnants and you may be lucky enough to see one if you look in the right place.

Giant panda snails (Hedleyella falconeri) live in east-coast rainforests from south-east Queensland south to Barrington Tops in NSW. The Big Scrub falls within their range and you can find them, for instance, in the Nightcap National Park.

During the day, you’re likely to find their empty shells on the ground as the living ones are hiding out in the leaf litter, under fallen logs, and at the base of strangler figs.

hedleyella-falconeri-underside

They are avoiding both drying out and their predators – the noisy pitta, lyrebird and brush turkey scratch through the leaf litter in search of snacks and such a large snail would provide a tasty treat for those birds. A pitta will smash a snail on a rock to get at the soft body. At night the snails can be found at the base of fig trees or moving through the leaf litter, especially after wet weather meandering randomly across the forest floor, feeding on some of the mushrooms that develop after rain.

Not much is known about their ecology because very few studies have been done, but a 2002 study by Michael Murphy of NSW National Parks, published in Molluscan Research 2002, 22, 149–164, tracked the movement of six of these snails over a couple of weeks. The study snails moved in a wiggly fashion an average of 8.7 metres a night, with the maximum being 21 metres, so they can cover quite an area. Snail eggs were discovered with one of these snails in a depression covered with leaves; each egg was creamy-white with a rubbery texture, weighing about 2 grams and about 1.5 centimetres in diameter – a big egg for a big snail.

So if you go out in the woods on a rainy night, you’re in for a big surprise – you just might find a giant … panda snail!

Update: for size comparison, here is the African giant tiger land snail (Achatina achatina).

Giant_tiger_land_snail_(Achatina_achatina)_with_hand

Achatina achatina in Ghana; photo by Charlesjsharp, Wikimedia Commons

 

Advertisements
Posted in Molluscs | Tagged , | 4 Comments

Mistletoebird

This morning I heard a chirp I hadn’t been aware of for some time, not since the bottlebrush in the backyard died. That tree had been the host of one of Australia’s 90 species of mistletoe (70 are native).

Jeremy Coleby-Williams says:

Mistletoes are semi-parasitic. They have chlorophyll in their leaves and can therefore manufacture their own food. The only reason they need a host is to provide it with water and support – they use the host as a root system.

The fruit are generally brightly coloured and the flesh is sweet and tasty. Each fruit has one large seed and is covered with a sticky coat. Birds enjoy the fruit but have to wipe the seed, either off their beaks or bottoms, onto a branch after feeding. The seed then rapidly germinates, sending a root into the host plant plumbing itself into the sap flow for life.

Mistletoe flower (Muellerina eucalyptoides); photo by John Tann, Wikimedia Commons

Before I could take a photo, the bird flitted away, joining another one, but in the binoculars it was undoubtedly a male mistletoe bird (Dicaeum hirundinaceum), one of the flowerpeckers.

Mistletoebird (Dicaeum hirundinaceum); photo by Lip Kee, Wikimedia Commons

The mistletoebird eats mostly mistletoe flowers, but also nectar, spiders, insects, mites, millipedes and centipedes. After the mistletoe seed passes through the bird’s digestive system quickly (4 to 25 minutes), it is deposited on a branch in a sticky substance so that it clings on and is able to sprout into another mistletoe.

Wikipedia says:

The mistletoebird is a mistletoe feeding specialist … As the mistletoe has been in Australia for a long time and mistletoebirds for a relatively short time, the mistletoe seed was distributed originally by non-specialized frugivore birds like the honeyeater. Even though the mistletoebird has evolved into a very efficient local distributor of mistletoe seeds, the mistletoebird needs the mistletoe but the mistletoe does not need the mistletoebird.

A couple of eastern whipbirds (Psophodes olivaceus) faced off in the backyard this morning, too – judging by the flashing of the crests, it could have been males establishing territory. Certainly, males and females have been calling and responding for the last couple of weeks. The three-note call seems to come from one bird, but the two-note call at the end is actually the female’s response.

Eastern whipbird; photo by Greg Miles, Wikimedia Commons

Down at Ballina, we saw a pair of pied oystercatchers (Haematopus longirostris) see off a pair of sooty oystercatchers (Haematopus fuliginosus) on the rocks.

Pied oystercatcher; photo by Glen Fergus, Wikimedia Commons

Sooty oystercatcher; photo by Glen Fergus, Wikimedia Commons

Along with the 2-metre python and a maned wood duck mother and chicks on the road yesterday (all successfully avoided), these signs surely show that spring has arrived with great enthusiasm.

Posted in Birds | Tagged , | 6 Comments

The squirrel glider, the sally wattle and the tawny frogmouth

There are three protagonists in this story. Andrew (not one of them) has seen a squirrel glider (Petaurus norfolcensis) a few times over several nights in the trees (one big eucalypt, one wattle) near the house. It has a particular yapping call, not unlike a frog. I’ve not had the privilege of seeing this cutie yet.

Squirrel glider; photo by Brisbane City Council, Wikimedia Commons

Squirrel gliders are endemic to the east coast of Australia. The body can be up to 23 cm (9″) long and its tail up to 33 cm (13″) long.

I’d been wondering about the weeping resin on the sally wattle (Acacia melanoxylon, the second protagonist) near the house. It looks like it has been chewed and is bubbling at the top. Brown resin slides down from the ‘wound’.

 

Wikipedia says:

The squirrel glider eats mostly fruit and insects. It also feeds on tree sap, mainly eucalyptus or red bloodwood trees. In order to get the sap the squirrel glider will pierce the trunk of the tree causing sap to flow out of it. It also eats pollen, nectar, leaves, and bark. …

There is the clue – ‘sap’. The tree is a wattle, not a eucalypt – but note the ‘mainly’, so wattles are not excluded.

The third protagonist is the tawny frogmouth (Podargus strigoides), seen a couple of times in the sally wattle at the same time as the glider. Coincidence or waiting a chance to pounce?

Tawny frogmouth

Natural predators of the squirrel glider include dogs, cats, foxes and owls. The tawny is not an owl; however, the Australian Museum says:

The bulk of the tawny frogmouth’s diet is made up of nocturnal insects, worms, slugs and snails. Small mammals, reptiles, frogs and birds are also eaten. Most food is obtained by pouncing to the ground from a tree or other elevated perch.

So it’s possible that the sally wattle is a feeding tree for the glider, and that the frogmouth lurks nearby, hoping to make a meal of the glider.

The glider will make a den in the hollow tree and line it with leaves. Here it will sleep and usually lives in groups of one male, 2 females, and offspring.

So we’ve put up an artificial tree hollow in the big eucalypt in the hope that the glider can use it as a shelter.

Another mystery possibly solved!

Posted in Art | Tagged , , | 3 Comments

White-throated nightjar

I’ve often heard this bird at home at night and wondered what it could be. A combination of “The National Photographic Index of Australian Wildlife: Cuckoos, Kingfishers, Nightbirds of Australia” (edited by Strahan) and Michael Morecombe’s “Birds of Australia” ap (which has bird sounds) helped me track it down. It has a distinctive rising, accelerating series of notes – the white-throated nightjar (Eurostopodus mystacalis).

White-throated nightjar; photo by Aviceda, Wikimedia Commons

According to the book, it is about the size of a pigeon (although it doesn’t say which pigeon and they do vary in size – rainforest pigeons are much bigger than rock pigeons) and is rarely seen by day. It squats motionless on the ground and its colouration helps it blend in with the leaf litter:

Birds from southern Australia are migratory, wintering in New Guinea and northern Australia and returning to their original roosting and breeding territories in the spring (when moths and flying beetles [their prey] are abundant. Birds in northern Australia are sedentary [do not migrate] … Calling birds are often heard on spring nights [i.e. now] … in the drier eucalypt forests of the coast and ranges.

I’ll have to listen and observe whether the noise goes away in winter, but my initial impression is that it is present all year, so maybe my area classifies as ‘northern Australia’.

Nice to finally have solved the mystery.

Posted in Birds | Tagged | 2 Comments

Border Ranges World Heritage Area

A visitor from Sydney was a good excuse to go up to the Border Ranges. We also invited a friend from Lismore and the four of us set off by car. At the start of the usual access road to the national park, a sign informed us that the road was closed in several places because of damage from the floods. So we did a massive back-track and detoured via Kyogle to take the western approach through Sheepstation Creek, which was open. We put our $8 park entry fee in the honesty box just as a couple of park rangers turned up. They were there to collect any money from the box before it was stolen and to make sure the camping grounds and many picnic areas were in good condition.

One of the many special features of the park is the presence of many Antarctic beeches. Another is the Albert’s lyrebird, found only in small areas in south-east Queensland and northern New South Wales.

The Antarctic beech (Nothofagus moorei – although there is a move to rename the genus Lophozonia) is a Gondwanan species, a hang-over of the break-up of the supercontinent. There is a complicated root structure from which several trunks grow, producing a sort-of giant fairy ring. Some of the trees are thought to be up to 3,000 years old.

Nothofagus roots

 

 

These three “trunks” are from the one tree.

The view from The Pinnacle is always spectacular. Standing on the rim of the giant shield volcano and looking out over the caldera to Wollumbin (Mt Warning) takes your breath away. It is the biggest erosion caldera in the southern hemisphere and one of the biggest in the world. One time we saw hundreds of butterflies being blown upwards; another time wedge-tailed eagles soared on the updrafts. The four photos below form a panorama from north to east to south. The third photo is the volcanic plug at the centre, Wollumbin.

 

 

Wollumbin remains:

a place of cultural and traditional significance to the Bundjalung people and is a sacred site where particular ceremonies and initiation rites are performed. The Bundjalung people observe cultural and traditional restrictions forbidding the uninitiated from climbing the mountain, and, as such, ask that others also do not attempt to climb the mountain. The government National Parks and Wildlife Service advertise this request and do not encourage climbers to hike the Mt. Warning/Wollumbin Trail up the mountain, but it is not expressly forbidden by park regulations.

It’s been very dry – a business in Lismore has a sign, “We don’t like the F word but we miss the rain” (F for “flood”) – so the leaf litter, lichens and mosses were exceptionally crunchy. The grasstrees (Xanthorrhoea) were madly flowering, attracting a scarlet honeyeater (Myzomela sanguinolenta), a Lewin’s honeyeater (Meliphaga lewinii) and an eastern spinebill (Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris). Andrew took the photos of the eastern spinebill below.

The Lewin’s is a duller bird, but still energetic.

Lewin’s honeyeater

The scarlet honeyeater is wonderfully colourful.

Scarlet honeyeater

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Add in a picnic and, all in all, it was a satisfying day of exploration.

Posted in Birds, Travels | Tagged | 10 Comments

“We’re made of star stuff”

… said astronomer Carl Sagan. And so “Star Stuff” was an appropriate name for the “festival of the cosmos” in Byron Bay last weekend. It was a beauty, with top-name astronomers, and astrophysicists, astrophotographers and science media personalities on the menu. It was set at just the right level for 400 or so amateur astronomers (adults and teenagers), whether they used telescopes or not. Volunteers from the Southern Astronomical Society (based in Logan, Gold Coast and Tweed Heads) helped with organisation, and there were merchandise stalls for books and telescopes from sponsors, who also generously donated “lucky door” prizes. Folks from the North Coast Astronomy Facebook group were there, too. There was even a virtual reality experience of walking on Mars (the queues were too big so I didn’t have a go at this – it would have been amazing).

Byron Lighthouse by Luke Taylor

 

Here’s what happened. Some talks were more detailed than I have described but I am only going by my notes – too much information to remember it all.

Saturday June 24th

8:30am – Event Start Registration & Entry @ Banksia Pavilion

9:30am – Welcome to Country & Introduction [welcome by Arakwal woman, Delta Kay]

10:00am – Dr Duane Hamacher (Monash University) – “Aboriginal Astronomy: Sixty Thousand Years of Science & Culture”.

I knew next to nothing about this. Duane works at the Monash University Indigenous Centre and has done a lot of work on this with Aboriginal people all over Australia.

He talked about the precise observation of stars over many years, sometimes millenia, that has been demonstrated by Aboriginal cultures, and its links to their way of life. (That sounds stuffy, but he was anything but.)

For instance, the emu and its orientation in the sky tells when it’s time to go out looking for edible emu eggs and when to stop because they won’t be available. “To spot the emu, look south to the Southern Cross; the dark cloud between the stars is the head, while the neck, body and legs are formed from dust lanes stretching across the Milky Way.”

>

 

The emu in A is a female, running to catch a male for mating (the females do this in this species of bird.) B shows the male sitting on the eggs, so it’s a good time to go egg-hunting. C shows the male starting to sit up, so the eggs are hatching – not a good time for finding edible eggs. In D the bird is almost below the horizon, so the egg-finding season is finished.

This is the “primary school” level of the tale. There are many other star stories/observations, and like the songlines they embody information in a way that can be relatively easily passed from person to person (see Lynn Kelly’s book, “The Memory Code“, on traditional Aboriginal ways of remembering). You can find more at:

11:15am –  Mark Gee – “Astrophotography – A Personal Journey” – “Photography has been a part of most of my life, but over the past 9 years astrophotography in particular has captured my imagination and interest. I often venture out to the darkest, most remote skies all around the world, enjoying the challenge of combining striking landscapes with the ethereal beauty of the night sky in new, creative ways. In 2013 I shot a short film called ‘Full Moon Silhouettes’, a labour of love, which went viral and inadvertently launched my international astrophotography career. It’s been one hell of a crazy ride, and during this session I will share with you my personal journey.”

Award-winning shot by Mark Gee

Mark Gee enthusing about astrophotography

 

Mark lives in New Zealand and has been on the photography path for 5 years. He told how he got into it and how he started getting offers when one of his videos (the moon rising over the Byron Bay lighthouse) went viral. You can see his beautiful work at http://theartofnight.com

12:00 Noon – LUNCHBREAK [Unsurprisingly, the café at Elements of Byron couldn’t cope with the influx of lunchers in the 1 hour time frame, and the main restaurant was too pricey, so we zoomed down to a café in the Industrial Estate for faster service – local knowledge is useful.]

1:00pm  – Dr David Malin (Australian Astronomical Observatory). “Astro-images from the Ice Age” – “I offer a very brief look at some surprisingly ancient astronomical imaging, and describe how everything changed with the invention of the telescope and then again with the advent of photography, nearly 200 years ago. From the 1990s onwards astro-imaging became increasingly democratised as it embraced the digital era, and today it is ever-more difficult for the amateur to stand out from the crowd. I will offer my views from a perspective of 40 years or so and make some suggestions relevant to today’s astro-imagers.”

David covered quite a lot of ground on the archaeology of astronomical images. His excellent photographic work can be seen at https://www.davidmalin.com/

David Malin quotes Brian Cox

A possible way the Antikythera mechanism worked. It was an ancient Greek analogue computer and orrery used to predict astronomical positions and eclipses for calendrical and astrological purposes (150-100 BC). This diagram has been constructed from the archaeological find.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2:15pm – Dr Fred Watson (Australian Astronomical Observatory) – “Keeping Us All In The Dark (Without Spoiling Our Fun)” – “One of the more notable outcomes of 2015’s International Year of Light was an increased awareness of darkness. With light pollution damaging the night skies of all the world’s cities, there is a growing call for better-designed outdoor lighting to improve the nocturnal environment and avoid wasted energy. This talk shows how today’s technology makes that eminently attainable. It also looks at threats to the night sky of Siding Spring Observatory, where a pristine environment is of paramount importance. Reclaiming the night sky is not just for astronomers and nocturnal animal species, however – but is to the benefit of everyone. Join Fred Watson for this entertaining and informative encounter with the dark side.”

Fred worked for decades as an astronomer at the Siding Spring Observatory but is now involved in campaigns to re-darken the night sky, for health, environmental and scientific reasons. Lights can do their job just as well or better in cities if the light is angled down rather than up, and is often cheaper that way.

His work is at http://www.darksky.org/

3:00pm – AFTERNOON TEA BREAK

4:15pm – Dr Katie Mack – (University of Melbourne) “Dispatches from a Dark Universe” – There’s more to the Universe than we can see — even more than we can ever see. I’ll give a tour of the edges of our knowledge of the cosmos, including where the frontiers are, and what might remain unknowable forever. Come for the Big Bang, stay for the possibility of the ultimate destruction of all of reality! (Topics include dark matter, dark energy, and recent research on Higgs vacuum decay)” [My hero!]

Katie is a theoretical astrophysicist, working on dark matter and dark energy. Some of her many articles are at:

Basic particles as they are understood at present

The composition of the universe as it is presently understood

 

Katie also talked about the “false vacuum”/”true vacuum” theory. This was a new one on me – the idea that our universe may be in a ‘false vacuum’, which may disintegrate instantly at any time. Fun!

Frankly, it’s not something I’m worrying about. If it happens, I won’t know anything about it, instantly.

5:00pm – BREAK

And as the sun set, we wended our way back to Lismore to see the end of the Lantern Parade.

Duck Pond at Elements of Byron

 

6:45pm – Doors Open for VIP Gala Dinner [We missed the dinner and Karl’s speech.]

8:00pm – Dr Karl Kruszelnicki Presents “Great Moments in Space Science – Why do stars have points? Why are asteroids God’s way of enquiring gently about our space program? What colour is the universe? Gravitational Waves and much more.”

9:00pm – Celestron Evolution 6 Giveaway

10am – 6pm : Solar Astronomy (weather permitting) and Vendor Displays in the Belongil Pavilion [I peeked down a telescope and was able to make out a sunspot.]

8pm until Late : Night Sky Tours and Star Gazing / Telescopes from “The Heart of the Bay” Lookout (weather permitting)

Sunday June 25th

9:30am – Jade Rushwood (Byron Bay High School) – “Jupiter and its moons’ orbits – A High School Student’s perspective” – “A look into how a high school student like myself researches the more complicated sides of astrophysical mathematics.”

Jade

 

Jade’s science teacher set a project where the students could choose and complete their own piece of research to investigate a scientific theory. She chose to check Kepler’s equation for the positions of Jupiter’s moons, taking photos of those moons with very basic equipment. At the end of her talk, Dylan gave her a real telescope to make future observations easier.

10:00am Dylan O’Donnell (Byron Bay Observatory) – “Taking Photos of Space That Matter” – “An astrophotographer primer with tips for the beginner and the experienced astrophotographer.” Dylan was the organiser of this event and a fine job he did. His observatory is basically the backyard of his townhouse, and yet in 3 years he has produced some excellent images, which he generously makes available for free.

The photo below went viral on the net and brought him to the attention of NASA (like NASA, he makes his photos available for free).

International Space Station over Australia (public domain 1 July 2015 by Dylan O’Donnell)

If it’s good enough for Chris Hadfield (right, on the International Space Station) …

He’s a self-deprecating young man who has achieved a lot (for a biography, go here). He didn’t technically get excommunicated from the Catholic Church – for the story, go here – but it produced a solid amount of claps from the audience. This James Joyce quote may apply to him (and all of us): “Errors are the portals of discovery”.

11:15am – Mark Gee – “The Art of Astrophotography” – “Join me for a introductory session on how to take wide field astrophotography images. I will cover all of the camera setting and techniques required to get the most out of your DSLR camera, and also demonstrate my processing techniques in Adobe Lightroom.” Mark went into depth about how he takes images and turns them into art via software.

12:00 Noon – LUNCHBREAK

1:00pm – Professor Alan Duffy – “Life, the Universe and Everything (We Can’t See)” – “Our universe is teeming with planets but not, seemingly, aliens. We’re stretched and strained by titanic eruptions that none of us can feel and swept in a galactic wind that none of us notice. I will explore how Australia is leading the charge in understanding the mysteries and close to finally answering the big questions … are we alone, where did we come from and does Einstein always have to be right?”

Alan is a computational astrophysicist at Swinburne University of Technology (Melbourne): “I use supercomputers [creating model universes] to uncover the nature of dark matter (a new type of particle that binds galaxies together) and the key physical laws that govern the formation of galaxies. I focus on two extremes of distance, the very close and the very far from us in the Milky Way. The first is understanding cold gas motions and distributions across the sky in millions of galaxies close to us. The second is in the early universe during the epoch of reionisation, a time when the first galaxies lit up the universe.”

 

Artist impression of some of the exoplanets discovered so far (over 1,000 confirmed)

 

 

After discussing dark matter and energy, black holes, exoplanet detection and detection of life thereon, and gravitational waves, he played us the sound of a gravitational wave – most impressive that we are able to hear this.

And if you want to contribute to serious science about gravitational waves, there’s a citizen science project at https://www.ligo.caltech.edu/news/ligo20161018. It involves sorting through the data of the LIGO project:

As a “Gravity Spy” participant, you will look at real LIGO data in search of ‘glitches’, unwanted hiccups in the signal that can sometimes be confused for or mask out gravitational waves. Glitches make finding the real thing even more difficult than it already is! Nevertheless, they are an unfortunate fact of life for LIGO, so identifying the different kinds of glitches that appear in the interferometer data is crucial for LIGO scientists to be able to distinguish between annoying blips and signals from space!

And, Alan, when is the “Cosmic Vertigo” podcast coming back?

1:45pm – BREAK

2:15pm – Dr Karl Kruszelnicki– “Ask Dr Karl” – “All attendees are invited for a real life interactive session where the audience can ask questions of the man himself!”

Dr Karl

 

Science educator, multiple PhD-holder and all-round smart guy, Dr Karl gave his usual meandering yet fascinating answers to audience questions. I was impressed that he answered young kids’ questions just as seriously as those of adults, even though the adults sometimes (rudely, I felt) tittered at some questions.

3:00pm – BREAK

3:15pm – Jamie Anderson – “Developing Low Cost Access to Space” – “There’s no lack of innovation and entrepreneurship in the space industry, but what is severely lacking is the means of getting these technologies and ideas to space. For a true revolution to occur, similar to what we’ve seen with personal computing and the Internet on Earth, the cost of getting to orbit needs to be drastically reduced. Gilmour Space Technologies is one of a new breed of space ventures taking on the challenge of building rockets, using breakthrough technologies in safe propulsion and 3D printing, among others, to provide truly low cost access to space.”

Jamie is Head of Propulsion at Singapore and Australia’s answer to SpaceX and spoke enthusiastically about Gilmour’s projects.

4:00pm – Michaela Jeffery – “Overview of ESA’s Operations in Australia” – “Discussing how facilities located in Australia have supported some of ESA’s most important missions, and the ongoing relationship between ESA and Australia.”

Michaela is a mechanical engineer at Boeing and spoke about the European Space Agency projects (Rosetta, Mars Express, Gaia). It is a shame Australia is not a partner and seems to be missing out on lots of useful results of projects.

4:30pm – Giveaway & Closing Ceremony [We left after this.]

5:00pm – BREAK FOR DINNER

7:30pm – MOVIE SCREENING – “Hidden Figures” (2016) – “Three brilliant African-American women at NASA — Katherine Johnson (Taraji P. Henson), Dorothy Vaughan (Octavia Spencer) and Mary Jackson (Janelle Monáe) — serve as the brains behind one of the greatest operations in history: the launch of astronaut John Glenn (Glen Powell) into orbit, a stunning achievement that restored the nation’s confidence, turned around the Space Race and galvanized the world.”

10am – 6pm : Solar Astronomy (Weather permitting) & Vendor Displays in the Belongil Pavilion

8pm until Late : Night Sky Tours and Star Gazing / Telescopes from “The Heart of the Bay” Lookout (Weather Permitting)

If anyone is interested in a local event, the North Coast Astronomy group is holding a star-gazing night at the Corndale Hall Corndale event on 19th August – see the North Coast Astronomy FB page.

I have to say it was a bit depressing coming home after a weekend of such fantastic intellectual stimulation, but at least at our home we still have – overhead, shining in all their winter glory in the streetlight-free sky – the stars, the wonderful stars.

Posted in Travels | Tagged , | 6 Comments

Sharpes Beach fungi

The rain continues on and off. Lismorons (and I mean that in an affectionate way) are a bit over it, but ducks, frogs and fungi are loving it.

There’s a newish walking/cycling/jogging/dog- and/or child-walking path through the heath on the coast at Sharpes Beach. As well as a good spot for surf-watching (always a relaxing activity), at present it has lots of fungi.

The yellow and red species below are stinkhorns, Phallus multicolor and P. rubicunda. The brown slime is stinky and attracts flies, which gobble up the spores and distribute them around the place. Both these species are very common. It’s best to wait for a couple of days after rain to allow time for the fruiting bodies (the main body of the fungus – the mycelium – is underground and what we think of as fungi are actually the fruiting bodies) to appear. The mycelia are saprophytic, meaning they break down organic matter, thereby distributing nutrients  into the soil. These phalluses were in mulch.

Phallus multicolor

Here are some others from the same path. The first two are agarics, Schizophyllum commune. They start off pinky, then bleach to white with age.

Schizophyllum commune; 5c piece on top for scale

Schizophyllum commune, white when bleached with age

 

Next is (probably) Pycnoporus coccineus (the scarlet bracket). The underside shows pores rather than gills (making it a polypore).

Pycnoporus coccineus

Pycnoporus coccineus underside, showing pores

Another polypore …

Underside of the photo below

Amanita xanthocephala

Amanita xanthocephala underside – note the gills, not pores, and there’s no annulus (ring) on the stem. Amanitas generally have an annulus, but this species doesn’t.

When you take photos of the fruiting bodies, ideally you take a shot of the underside as well as the top (to see whether it has gills or pores), and the stem (to see whether it has an annulus or not), and include a 5c piece for scale. Undersides can be seen via a small mirror. If you ask for IDs on a Facebook group like SEQ Fungi, you’ll be in their good books if your photo has all that. Location is vital, too.

After handling fungi, it’s best to wash hands as you do not want to be carrying around more spores than you need to.

IDs are from:

  • “A Guide to Common Fungi of Coastal New South Wales” (Dept of Primary Industries, 2016). This is available as a free download on the last page of ‪http://hunter.lls.nsw.gov.au/resource-hub/publications. The download is called “A Guide to the Common Fungi of the Hunter-Central Rivers Region”, but covers many of our fungi in the Nortern Rivers. I think the 2016 book might be an update.
  • “Australian Subtropical Fungi” (McMullan-Fisher, Leonard and Guard, 2014)
  • Australian Fungi blog.

Any ID mistakes are my own.

Here is a free poster to download for identifying stinkhorns (don’t worry, it’s not scratch and sniff).

If you are on Facebook, there’s a transcript of a good talk on fungi edibility.

And here’s a cute rewriting of Dorothy McKellar’s poem “My Country”: “My Fungi“.

Posted in Fungi | Tagged , , , | 12 Comments